Haematuria – Nephro-Urology

– Causes of haematuria (other than the causes below): UTI, exercise induced, sickle cell disease, coagulopathy, haemolysis, myoglobinaemia, benign familial haematuria, hypercalciuria
– Many conditions can cause an overlap syndrome of haematuria and proteinuria
Nephritic syndrome: Combination of signs: haematuria +/- minor proteinuria, hypertension, uraemia (if protein losses are large then it’s more of an overlap nephrotic/nephritis syndrome)
– Colour of urine:

  • Red urine/clots: lower urinary tract bleeding
  • Brown (coca cola urine) (+/-red cell casts) : glomerular source of bleeding
  • Red urine with no blood seen on urine dip: discolouration not due to blood (e.g. beetroot consumption, rifampicin, etc)